Stereo Microscope Buying Guide

Stereo Microscope Buying Guide

2021-07-20
MeCan
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The Benefits of Stereo Microscopes
The Benefits of Stereo Microscopes
Many people have trouble keeping one eye closed while peering through a microscope lens with the other eye. A stereo microscope eliminates the need to close one eye because it has two eyepieces. Stereo Microscopes have all of the features of conventional microscopes with some added advantages. First of all, stereo microscopes have two eyepieces. They allow for greater depth perception, allowing viewers to see objects in three dimensions. Many stereo microscopes have a zoom lens feature, and it is not uncommon to find a stereo microscope with two illuminators. A stereo microscope has two eyepieces. This is a major advantage over conventional microscopes. The two eyepieces allow viewers to keep both eyes open, making it easier to focus on the object they are looking at. Many stereo microscopes have comfortable rubber eye guards that make the microscopes even more user friendly. A major advantage of stereo microscopes is that they allow viewers to see objects in three dimensions. Most microscopes only show objects in two dimensions. People can look at insects, plants, coins, or anything else in all three dimensions, providing the most realistic viewing experience imaginable. Many stereo microscopes have a zoom lens feature. This provides nearly limitless options for resolution and gives users more control over focus. The zoom lens allows users to slowly enlarge the object they are viewing more easily than conventional microscopes , which have two knobs to adjust. Another feature found on many stereo microscopes is a dual illuminator system. A stereo microscope has the conventional illuminator below the stage as well as another one right above the objective lens. This provides more than enough light to view specimens in all of their three dimensional glory. Stereo microscopes are versatile and easy to use. They are perfect for students or anyone else who wants to explore the miniature world around them.
An Elasto-mechanical Unfeelability Cloak Made of Pentamode Metamaterials
An Elasto-mechanical Unfeelability Cloak Made of Pentamode Metamaterials
Metamaterial-based cloaks make objects different from their surrounding appear just like their surrounding. To date, cloaking has been demonstrated experimentally in many fields of research, including electrodynamics at microwave frequencies, optics, static electric conduction, acoustics, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and quasi two-dimensional solid mechanics. However, cloaking in the seemingly simple case of three-dimensional solid mechanics is more demanding. Here, inspired by invisible core-shell nanoparticles in optics, we design an approximate elasto-mechanical core-shell 'unfeelability' cloak based on pentamode metamaterials. The resulting three-dimensional polymer microstructures with macroscopic overall volume are fabricated by rapid dip-in direct laser writing optical lithography. We quasi-statically deform cloak and control samples in the linear regime and map the displacement fields by autocorrelation-based analysis of recorded movies. The measured and the calculated displacement fields show very good cloaking performance. This means that one can elastically hide objects along these lines.For the fabrication of the mechanical cloak as well as the reference structures, we used the commercially available DLW system Photonic Professional GT (Nanoscribe GmbH, Germany). In this setup, a liquid photoresist (IP-S resist, Nanoscribe GmbH) was polymerized via multi-photon absorption using a frequency-doubled Erbium fibre laser with a center wavelength of 780 nm and with a pulse duration of about 90 fs. The 3D exposure pattern was addressed by laser scanning using a set of galvo-mirrors and mechanical stages. The samples were prepared by drop-casting the negative-tone photoresist on a glass cover slip (22 × 22 × 0.17 mm). To avoid depth-dependent aberrations, the objective lens ( × 25, numerical aperture=0.8, Carl Zeiss) was directly dipped into the resist. Structural data were created in STL file format using the open-source software Blender and COMSOL Multiphysics. The software package Describe (Nanoscribe GmbH) was used to compile the CAD data into machine code. The scan raster was set to 0.5 μm laterally and 1 μm axially. The structure was laterally split into 8 scan fields of about 500 × 500 μm footprint each that were stitched together. The writing speed was set to 5 cm s. After the DLW of the preprogrammed pattern, the exposed sample was developed for 20 min in mr-Dev 600 and acetone. The process was finished in a supercritical point dryer to avoid capillary forces during drying.The images used for the extraction of the strain field were recorded with a camera (Sony GigE Vision XCG-5005CR) attached to a stereo microscope (Leica Mz 125 and a 0.5 × adapter from Leica mount to C-Mount). To reduce data, the images were then cropped to show only the structure and its close vicinity. For each picture taken, a linear stage induced a different predefined strain into the sample. The strain was successively increased in 50 steps towards the maximum value and afterwards decreased in 50 steps back to the initial value with a strain rate of 2% per minute. The glass substrate with the sample was attached to a goniometer and a micrometre stage to allow for positioning and aligning the sample with respect to the rest of the setup. The stamp was moved with a linear stage to which part of a silicon wafer with well-defined surface was attached.The software used to extract the strain field was based on a freely available package. Here, selected markers with a set size of 15 × 15 image pixels were cross-correlated with the images from the measurement. The initial marker positions were fixed in a square grid with a spacing of 15 pixels in both dimensions spanning the entire size of the sample. This resulted in 67 markers along the horizontal direction and about 35 in the vertical. The tracking algorithm was set to a precision of 1/1,000 pixel. After cross-correlation, the position of each marker was known for each image. By subtracting the current marker positions from those of the reference frame, the displacement vector field was calculated for each image. Small movements of the glass substrate were corrected for. Movies of the reference, the obstacle and the cloak sample are given as . There, the full displacement vectors, multiplied by a factor of 4, are depicted. Additional colour coding of the modulus of the displacement vector helps to identify gradients. Colour coding and scales are identical for the three movies.We used the commercial software package COMSOL Multiphysics to numerically solve the static equations for linear elasticity. This means that neither a nonlinearity of the constituent material nor of the structure was accounted for. The geometry with the design parameters described in the main text was built using the internal kernel of COMSOL Multiphysics. The mesh consisted of about 640,000 tetrahedral elements (in COMSOL nomenclature: maximum element size=0.2 × , minimum element size=0.05 × , maximum element growth rate=16, resolution of curvature=0.7 and resolution of narrow regions=0.4) corresponding to 3–4 × 10 degrees of freedom. We used the direct solver MUMPS with a convergence tolerance of 10. As constituent material, we set an isotropic polymer with Young's modulus=1 GPa , Poisson's ratio =0.4 and mass density =1,200 kg m. Owing to the scalability of the underlying equations, Young's modulus and mass density did not even enter into the final results. The Poisson's ratio was not actually important. To deduce the displacements depicted in , we have tracked the connections with diameter in the middle of the extended fcc unit cell with respect to the direction. Further data processing was done like in the experiment.
Radial Arrangement of Janus-like Setae Permits Friction Control in Spiders
Radial Arrangement of Janus-like Setae Permits Friction Control in Spiders
Dynamic attachment is the key to move on steep surfaces, with mechanisms being still not well understood. The hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Arachnida, Ctenidae) possesses hairy attachment pads (claw tufts) at its distal legs, consisting of directional branched setae. The morphological investigation revealed that adhesive setae are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus. Friction of claw tufts on smooth glass was measured to reveal the functional effect of seta arrangement within the pad. Measurements revealed frictional anisotropy in both longitudinal and transversal directions. Contact behaviour of adhesive setae was investigated in a reflection interference contrast microscope (RICM). Observations on living spiders showed, that only a small part of the hairy pads is in contact at the same time. Thus the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. This may aid controlling the attachment to the substrate.Three living individuals of the hunting spider K 1877 (Ctenidae) were obtained from a laboratory stock of the Department of Neurobiology, University of Vienna, Austria. Spiders were kept in cylindrical glasses at the room temperature and 95% relative humidity and fed with house crickets () obtained from the local pet shop.The claw tufts were observed with aid of a stereo microscope (M205 A, Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) under lateral and coaxial illumination in spiders resting upside-down on the smooth transparent surface of Plexiglas Petri dishes.Tarsi of the four pairs of walking legs of one body side were ablated with a scalpel in spiders anaesthetized with carbon dioxide. The samples were air dried, mounted on metal stubs and sputter coated with a 15 nm layer of gold-palladium. Samples were viewed in the SEM TM-3000 (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at 15.0 kV using back-scattered electron (BSE) detector.The setup for force measurements was as previously described by Niederegger and Gorb and is displayed in . Freshly ablated tarsi of different walking legs from spiders anaesthetized with carbon dioxide were shaved at their dorsal side and mounted on a Plexiglas slide with bees wax. Tarsi were positioned in the wax so that the median surface of the setal array of the claw tuft was parallel to the Plexiglas slide. Those samples were attached with double sided adhesive tape to the distal cantilever of a load cell force transducer with 10 g force range (World Precision Instruments Inc., Sarasota, FL, USA). A second force transducer of the same type was attached to a micromanipulator (DC3001R with controller MS314, World Precision Instruments Inc., Sarasota, FL, USA) and placed perpendicularly to the first one. A clean glass cover slip was mounted on the lateral edge of the cantilever. Thus, normal force and friction force could be recorded simultaneously. Force curves were recorded with AcqKnowledge 3.7.0 software (Biopac Systems Ltd, Goleta, CA, USA). A laterally installed stereo microscope was used to monitor the sample movements and the proper contact formation between the claw tuft and smooth substrate.Experiments were performed at an environmental temperature of 20–23°C and a relative humidity of 20–25%. The cover slip was brought into contact with the claw tuft and loaded until normal force reached about 7 mN. Then it was horizontally moved for 3 s with the constant velocity of 200 μm·s in the proximal (simulating leg pushing) and distal (simulating leg pulling) direction, and the friction forces, resisting these movements, was recorded. Proximal and distal sliding experiments were done in a randomized order.Similar force measurements were repeated with the same but air dried samples after two days. Additionally, pro- and retrolateral shearing experiments were performed in the pro- and retrolateral lobes of the claw tuft on an air dried anterior leg tarsus. For this purpose, the leg sample was positioned in the way that the surface of respective lobe was oriented parallelly to the surface of the glass cover slip.Force data were obtained by respective processing of the recorded time-force curves. We have taken into account values recorded after two seconds after shear movement was started, to ensure that the contact between the pad and substrate was formed and friction forces have reached plateau. Friction coefficient μ was calculated as the quotient between friction and normal force. Data were statistically compared with R software package (version 2.13.2, ).Contact behaviour between tuft pad and glass substrate was visualized with an inverted light microscope (Axio Observer.A1, Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Göttingen, Germany). In the RICM mode, the light source is positioned in a way that light is reflected at the interface of direct (real) contact between the glass slide and the object. Zones of direct contact appear as dark spots on the bright background. Similar visualisation techniques were previously used in studies of attachment of cells and frogs.A cleaned glass cover slip was mounted on the stage and viewed at ×200–630 (oil immersion) magnification. The air dried claw tuft was glued onto a sample holder and positioned with the ventral side onto the cover slip. The stage was then manually moved vertically and laterally and the behaviour of spatulae in contact with glass was recorded with a high speed video camera (Photron Fastcam SA1.1, VKT Video Kommunikation GmbH, Pfullingen, Germany) at 500–1000 frames per second.
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