How Do They Identify Bacteria Seen by a Microscope?
Bacteria are not usually identified using a light microscope. Bacteria are at the limit of resolution of the light microscope and do not provide much visual detail other than perhaps form and surface coat characteristics. Bacteria are usually cultured to identify them. Classical methods involved how they look and grow on agar plates and what type of media they grow on. They can be visualized using electron microscopes which have much higher resolution than light microscopes. The modern approach would be to analyze their DNA using culturing after isolating them as a colony on an agar plate and then extracting their DNA and identifying their species using restriction enzymes to produce characteristic fragments known as u2018bar codesu2019 of their IDs. If a bacterium was observed in a light microscope view of a surface, a micromanipulator could be used to collect that individual bacterium and transfer it to a culture plate for potential growth and identification via the protocol suggested above.How do they identify bacteria seen by a microscope?â¢ Related QuestionsWhat is the difference between a compound light microscope and a dissecting microscope? What similarities do they share?The chief differences are: a compound microscope is usually high powered and is used to view slides; a dissecting microscope will be low powered (usually less than x40), have no stage and usually completely stereoscopic.Dissecting microscopes have a cantilevered or counterbalanced arm that holds the optics so that they can be positioned over the item being dissected. Formerly, dissecting microscopes were monocular but have largely been replaced by stereo instruments as these give a much better view of the object. They occasionally compromise two monocular scopes side-by-side and thus have two objective lenses. More often two ocular scopes share a single large objective lens and sometimes offer a zoom facility going from very low power up to the maximum power of the objective lens. Such objective lenses can be very large, 20 to 30mm in diameter. The ocular or eyepiece lenses usually have a diopter of 1, i.e. they do not magnify,What is the difference between a compound light microscope and a dissecting microscope? What similarities do they share?------What are the components of a cell seen under a microscope?Depends on the kind of microscope and typically the kind of stain used on the tissues. When properly stained with dyes, in a light microscope, the cell membranes and adjacent cells comprising of the tissue are clearly observed, the cell nucleus are clearly observed for those cell that have cell nuclei. Some stains allow the observation of nervous tissue and mitochondria. Muscle fibers and collagen fibers can also be observed. Bacteria can also be observed within the gut. Most tissues observed with a light microscope are sectioned thinly and stained to observed these structures. Sometimes, smears, drops, or needle aspirates of body fluids are used to observe blood, cancer biopsies to see whether structures are normal or not. Under certain circumstances and with certain cells, chromosomes can also be observed.Pick up a histology book to see what a cells look like in the body. Looking at cells with an electron microscope is a whole other world going even smaller into inner space!What are the components of a cell seen under a microscope?------Why can't a person catch HIV from body fluids or saliva?HIV is a virus and viruses are very different from other organisms . They are not composed of cells and cannot be seen under a light microscope. Viruses donot exhibit most of the life processes of a cell . They undergo mutations. Mankind victimised by many diseases caused by viruses but no identifiable agent responsible for these diseases was known even after the proposition of the germ theroy of disease. W.M stanley purified the sap which caused tobacco mosaic virus and announced that virus could be crystallized. It ia very difficult to identify and catch viruses in body fluids. As they mutate it is not possible to produce suitable antibiotic to it. So treatment of AIDS with anti-retroviral drugs can prolong the life of the patient but cannot prevent death. A widely used diagnostic test for detecting HIV infection is the Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test. This can be detected within 15 days to 4 months after the exposur to virus. This ia only a screening test. Western blot is used as a reliable confirmation test for HIV infection------What is an emulsifier?Carbon is a unique element in the way that it bonds to other elements. It likes to form 4 bonds, and the way that hydrogen atoms bond to it create an almost non-polar bond, that is the charge is almost neutral across the molecule. Most other molecules are polar, that means that there is a slight positive charge on one part of the molecule and a slight negative charge on the other. The carbons bonded with other carbons in a chain with hydrogen atoms on either side form the backbones that all know life is based on. That's why the compressed undecomposed plant matter crushed under the weight of the earth is an oily goo (or gas, these are the shorter chains, and the longest chains are waxy solids). Polar and non polar molecules can both be liquid, but will not mix together. Emulsifiers suspend small globules in tiny pockets so that the mixture appears fluid and consistent. The globules can be seen under a light microscope as they are not truly dissolved, but suspended. This is called a colloid------What happens during prophase 1 of meiosis?During this phase of meiosis, chromosomes become visible, crossing-over occurs, the nucleolus disappears, the meiotic spindle forms, and the nuclear envelope disappears.At the start of prophase I, the chromosomes have already duplicated. During prophase I, they coil and become shorter and thicker and visible under the light microscope. The duplicated homologous chromosomes pair, and crossing-over (the physical exchange of chromosome parts) occurs. Crossing-over is the process that can give rise to genetic recombination. At this point, each homologous chromosome pair is visible as a bivalent (tetrad), a tight grouping of two chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids. The sites of crossing-over are seen as crisscrossed nonsister chromatids and are called chiasmata (singular: chiasma).The nucleolus disappears during prophase I.In the cytoplasm, the meiotic spindle, consisting of microtubules and other proteins, forms between the two pairs of centrioles as they migrate to opposite poles of the cell. The nuclear envelope disappears at the end of prophase I, allowing the spindle to enter the nucleus.Prophase I is the longest phase of meiosis, typically consuming 90% of the time for the two divisions------What word rhymes with rope?I would recommend RhymeZone rhyming dictionary and thesaurus:Words and phrases that rhyme with rope: (136 results)1 syllable:n-scope, -trope, chope, clope, cope, crope, dope, groep, grope, gsoep,hope, knope, koep, koepp, koeppe, kope, lope, mope, myope, nohup,nope, pope, prope, s.o.p, schoepe, schoepf, schoepp, scope, scrope,shope, slope, snoep, soap, sope, stoep, stope, stowp, strope, se,tope, trope2 syllables:nagrope, arrope, bar soap, bath soap, delope, dispope, elope, face soap,galope, glide slope, green soap, kalliope, malope, merope, o-scope,outlope, softsoap, soft soap, sterope, tightrope, trollope, unpope,unrope, worldscope3 syllables:nallotrope, antelope, antroscope, auriscope, bronchoscope, cantaloupe,endoscope, envelope, epitope, forlorn hope, gastroscope, gyroscope,horoscope, interscope, invert soap, isentrope, isotope, leather soap,liquid soap, marketscope, microscope, misanthrope, otoscope,partenope, periscope, proctoscope, pseudoscope, reotrope, rising slope,saddle soap, shaving soap, stethoscope, teinoscope, telescope,toilet soap4 syllables:nanisotrope, azeotrope, cape of good hope, goat antelope, heliotrope,kaleidoscope, laryngoscope, light microscope, onomatope,ophthalmoscope, oscilloscope, pay envelope, polariscope,schmidt telescope5 syllables:naerobioscope, compound microscope, continental slope,floral envelope, harnessed antelope, pronghorn antelope,sable antelope, simple microscope, solar telescope, telestereoscope,window envelope6 syllables:nelectron microscope, garden heliotrope, optical telescope,radio telescope, reflecting telescope, winter heliotrope7 syllables:namerican antelope, galilean telescope, gregorian telescope,newtonian telescope8 syllables:nastronomical telescopeWhat word rhymes with rope?------What are the major material analysis methods in full that are used extensively in the industry?In metallography and failure analysis, there are several analysis tools methods that are used, depending on what information you are trying to obtain.Optical Microscopy is used in failure analysis, fractography, and metallogrpahy. There are two microscopes that I use routinely: A low-power stereomicroscope, and an inverted light microscope. Scanning Electron Microscopy is also the bread and butter of materials analysis for metals. I use it for fractography, failure analysis, metallography. With the right detectors and software, I can also do chemical analysis by using energy dispersive x-ray spectrsocpy (EDS) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to determine what elements are present, and what the atomic structure is. X-Ray diffraction is used to determine atomic structure of materials, and also to determine what the residual stress state is.Mechanical testing also provides a set of analysis tools, from tensile tests, to hardness tests, to Charpy impact tests. Fracture toughness tests, fatigue tests and fatigue crack growth are also analysis methods, as are creep tests. What are the major material analysis methods in full that are used extensively in the industry?------Is it possible to form bainite in plain carbon steel by CCT?A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) phase diagram is used to represent the phase changes of a material as it is cooled at different rates. (An illustration of a cct diagram is shown above.)Bainite is a plate-like microstructure that forms in steels at temperatures of 250u2013550 u00b0C (depending on alloy content). It consists of cementite and dislocation-rich ferrite. The high concentration of dislocations in the ferrite present in bainite makes this ferrite harder than it normally would be. Under a light microscope, the microstructure of bainite appears darker than martensite due to its low reflectivity. The steel sample below was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity.Is it possible to form bainite in plain carbon steel by CCT?.------What is the difference between cell wall and cell membrane?Cell wall is metabolically inactive and non living. Cell membrane is metabolically active and living.Cell wall is the outermost layer in plant cell and occurs as a protective covering surrounding the plasma membrane. Cell memrane is the outermost layer in animal cell and occurs as a semi permeable covering surrounding the protoplasm.Cell wall is made up of cellulose in plant and of peptidoglycan in bacterium and made up of chitin in fungi.Plasma membrane is made up of lipids proteins and small amount of carbohydrates. Cell wall is a rigid, thick structure (4-20 uM) and visible in light microscope. Cell membrane is delicate, thin structure (5-10 nm wide) visible only in electron microscope.Cell wall is completely permeable to ordinary macromolecules . Cell membrane is selectively permeable or semi- permeable allowing only certain molecules to pass through.Cell wall determines the cell shape and offers protection. Cell membrane protect the protoplasm and maintains a constant internal environment to the protoplasm. Cell wall is present only in plant cell. Cell membrane is present in plant cells as well as in animal cell------What is the difference between primary cartilage and secondary cartilage?Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that differs from bone in several ways. For one, the primary cell types are chondrocytes as opposed to osteocytes. Chondrocytes are first chondroblast cells that produce the collagen extracellular matrix (ECM) and then get caught in the specialized, fibrous connective tissue present in adults, and forming most of the temporary skeleton in the embryo, providing a model in which most of the bones develop, and constituting an important part of the organism's growth mechanism; the three most important types are hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage clavicle arises by intramembranous ossification, but it develops secondary cartilages as growth centers.Fibrous cartilage has bundles of collagenous fibers that can be easily observed under a light microscope. Cartilage is covered with a membrane of connective tissue, perichondrium, which contains cells capable of changing into chondrocytes. Cartilage grows mainly by such transformation and by the division of cartilage cells (intercalary growth)The secondary cartilages of the clavicle present important morphologic differences with the primary cartilages of long bones, but similar to that observed in the condylar cartilage of the mandible.