Guide to Buy Microscope in MeCan

Guide to Buy Microscope in MeCan

2021-07-19
MeCan
46

On this page, you can find quality content focused on microscope. You can also get the latest products and articles that are related to microscope for free. If you have any questions or want to get more information on microscope, please feel free to contact us.

microscope has made a huge contribution in satisfying Guangzhou MeCan Medical Limited's desire to lead a sustainable manufacturing style. Since present days are the days that embrace eco-friendly products. The product is manufactured to be compliant with the international safety standards and the materials that it uses are totally non-toxic which ensures that it is harmless to the human body.We have gradually become an accomplished company with our brand - MeCan set up. We achieve success also due to the fact that we cooperate with companies that abound in development potential and create new solutions for them who will be empowered with convenience and choice offered by our company.Just as important as the quality of microscope is the quality of Customer Service. Our knowledgeable staff ensures every customer is delighted with their order made at MeCan.
recommended articles
Case Info Center AI Blog
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Light Microscope
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Light Microscope
"1. What are the advantages of a light compound microscope over an electronic microscope?A light compound microscope is not capable of the very high resolution and magnification of an electron microscope. A practical resolution limit is about 0.2 micrometers and a practical maximum magnification of about 1000x. However this covers an awful lot of samples, and there are some definite advantages. It is easier to use than an electron microscope, and certainly cheaper.The images you get are in colour, since you are normally using white light as the illumination source, whereas electron microscopes do not produce images in colour (#1). If you are using a chemical stain to enhance some feature, then you can see the colour of the stain. If you are using a fluorescence microscope then you see the fluorescence in colour.Samples are just placed on the stage in ambient air, so you can view samples either dry or wet, or suspended in a liquid. In a compound microscope, samples are usually mounted on a glass slide and may be under a glass coverslip. You can view some specimens live. If specimens are too thick for the light to penetrate, they may need to be sectioned into thin slices (typically in the range 1 - 10 micrometers), which can then be viewed. In some cases this can be done with a razor blade, or a microtome if you need thinner sections. For a transmission electron microscope, specimens often need to be prepared as very thin slices (typically less than 0. 1 micrometer thick), and this can be a much more complicated procedure than for a light microscope, especially for materials and geological samples.In electron microscopes, the samples are placed in a vacuum and are bombarded with a beam of electrons. Therefore, in general, the preparation methods for the specimens that you want to image are more exacting than for light microscopes. However light microscopes are normally very useful for initial examination of specimens before they are prepared for the electron microscope, and even during the preparation procedure.(#1 Some electron microscope images you see on the Web look great in colour but they have been colorised to enhance them - the original images would have been in monochrome.)What are the advantages of a light compound microscope over an electronic microscope?.------2. What are some of the interesting facts about microscope?Interesting Microscope Facts:Before the invention of microscopes people believed that illnesses were the result of poisonous gases or evil spirits. Once the microscope was created and people could see viruses and bacteria, these beliefs began to change.The very first microscopes were used to study insects, and they were nicknamed 'flea glasses'. Many believe that Zacharias and Han Jansen created the first compound microscope in the 1590s, but others believe it was Cornelis Drebbel in the 1620s.In 1625 the name 'microscope' was chosen by Giovanni Faber to reference the compound microscope created by Galileo Galilei's.A compound microscope has at least two lenses, including one at the eye called the eye piece, and one at the end closest to the sample called the objective. In 1665 a man named Robert Hooke published a book that included images (hand-drawn) of samples seen under the microscope's lens. His book was titled Micrographia.A microscope works because it is able to distinguish close structures as separate structures.Robert Hooke is credited with the discovery of cells, after studying a cork under the microscope. Taste buds and red blood cells were identified by Marcello Marpighi. He is known as the father of microscopic anatomy.Antony van Leeuwenhoek invented a single lens microscope in the 1660s that could magnify a sample 200 times. Antony van Leeuwenhoek is credited with discovering cells in plant tissue, and in animal and human blood and tissue.Robert Koch, a German physician and microbiologist, is credited with discovering cholera bacilli and tuberculosis.Compound microscopes today are so advanced that they can magnify a sample as many as 1000 times. When a sample under the microscope is photographed (the magnified image) it is called a micrograph.An electron microscope uses electrons instead of light to create the magnified image. The first electron microscope was the transmission electronic microscope, invented in 1931 by Ernst Ruska. The scanning electron microscope was invented in 1935 by Max Knoll.The scanning probe microscope was created in the 1980s, by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer.The atomic force microscope was created in 1986 by Gerd Bennig. A 500 nanometer long object was the smallest sample seen through a light microscope.When preparing a sample to view under a microscope, sometimes it is stained to make it more visible.What are some of the interesting facts about microscope?.------3. What happens to chromosomes during anaphase 1 and anaphase 2?What generally happens during anaphase?Chromosomes line up on the spindles between centrosomes during metaphase (the preceding stage to anaphase) at the equatorial plate (the centre line of the cell).nAfter this occurs then the chromosomes pull apart towards respective ends (towards the centrosomes) of the cell during each stage of anaphase. The difference between the two stages of anaphase lies in what is being pulled apart. Why are different chromosomes being pulled apart in different stages?To understand this, we first need to clear up some chromosomal terminology. The entire unit below is known as a tetrad (of four chromosomes). Before a tetrad is formed you have one blue and one red chromosome, each of which comes from a different parent. These are known as homologous chromosomes. Next these chromosomes each make a duplicate, identical chromosome, forming sister chromatid pairs. **NOTE: Don't get confused between the terminology of chromosome and chromatid. Chromatid is normally referred to before the genetic material has compressed into visible chromosomes, but this is generally a grey area and most of the time the terms of interchangeable. nThese chromosomes contain the same genes at the same loci (locations), but with potentially different alleles (variations of genes, for example dominant or recessive) depending on the paternal and maternal inheritance. These chromosomes are each duplicated and form two pairs of sisters chromatids. These two pairs then "glue" together and form the previously discussed tetrad unit, through a link between the two sister chromatid pairs known as the chiasmata. So which chromosome pairs get pulled apart in what phases?During anaphase 1 homologous pairs split apart, whereas during anaphase 2 identical sister chromatid pairs split apart. Essentially you are splitting up maternal and paternal chromosomes during anaphase 1, and identical chromosomes during anaphase 2. **NOTE: Be weary of the way in which some textbooks/articles/professors choose to term a chromosome. I was initially taught that a chromosome is a chromatid once it condenses into visibility under a light microscope during prophase. However, as some of my subsequent teachers and some newer textbooks have decided, the term can be used for both a single chromatid that has condensed and a pair of identical sister chromatids - go figure. What happens to chromosomes during anaphase 1 and anaphase 2?What happens to chromosomes during anaphase 1 and anaphase 2 ?------4. What are good microscope brands?Are you planning to purchase a microscope from a good brand? Well, high end microscope brands are quite expensive. But as per your question, it seems that budget is not a constraint. So heres a list of top brands that will help you make a better decision:-1. Nikon-Founded in 1917, Nikon is one of the best and biggest microscope manufacturers in the world. One of the biggest strengths of the company lies in its technological innovation and creativity. This has allowed Nikon to continue changing with time, thereby producing products that meet the needs of the consumer. Some of the best Nikon microscopes are The Eclipse 80i and 90i Models (compound microscopes), SMZ1500 (Stereo microscope), and SMZ445 / 460 (Stereo microscope).Here are the major highlights: High durability of its mechanical components High precision Enhanced functionalities/capabilities to accommodate various research fields Impressive contrast levels, resolution and increased field of view A wide range of accessories2. Lecia-Founded in the 19th century (1869) Leica has grown to become a leader in global design and production of the state of the art optical systems. One of the biggest strengths of Leica is that it is well known for quality.Some of the innovative products to be produced recently include: Leica EZ4 W (a stereo educational microscope) - This particular microscope allows users to transfer HB images directly to their mobile devices. The Leica MZ16 - Despite being a stereo microscope, this model comes with the apochromatic objective lens and provides a magnification range that extends further in to the capacity of a compound light microscope with ample working distances. Here are the major highlights: Top-level operational convenience and error-free analysis of image material Adaptability (depending on the needs of the user) All its product series are ergonomic3. Zeiss-Apart from being the oldest microscope manufacturer, Zeiss is also the largest producer of optical equipment in the world. Since its foundation, Zeiss has played an important role in the industry is at the forefront of both design and manufacturing. Some of the strengths of Zeiss microscopes include: Exceptional flexibility They are highly configurable Such microscopes as the Axio Scope. A1 allow for a broad range of applicationsYou can check this article to know a complete list of top Microscope available in the market offered by different leading brands------5. What is the structure of flagella?Bacterial Flagella: structure, types and functionFlagellum (singular) is hair like helical structure emerges from cell wall and cell membraneIt is responsible for motility of the bacteriaSize: thin 15-20nm in diameter.Single flagella can be seen with light microscope only after staining with special stain which increase the diameter of flagella.Structure of flagella:Flagella is not straight but is helical. It is composed of flagellin protein (globular protein) and known as H antigen.Flagella has three parts. Basal body, Hook and filamentBasal body:it is composed of central rod inserted into series of rings which is attached to cytoplasmic memvbrane and cell wall.L-ring: it is the outer ring present only in Gram -ve bacteria, it anchored in lipopolysaccharide layerP-ring: it is second ring anchored in peptidoglycan layer of cell wall. M-S ring: anchored in cytoplasmic membraneC ring: anchored in cytoplasmHook:it is the wider region at the base of filamentit connects filament to the motor protein in the baselength of hook is longer in gram ve bacteria than gram -ve bacteriaFilament:it is thin hair like structure arises from hook.Types of flagellaOn the basis of arrangement1. Monotrichous:presence of single flagella in one end of cell. examples; Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aerogenosa2. Lophotrichous:presence of bundle of flagella in one end of cell.example: Pseudomanas fluroscence3. Amphitrichous:presence of single or cluster of flagella at both end of cell. example; Aquaspirillium4. Peritrichous:presence of flagella all over the cell surface.example; E.coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella5. Atrichous:absent of flagella.example; ShigellaFunction:Flagellar motility:At the base surrounding the inner ring (M-S and C ring) there is a series of protein called Mot protein.A final set of protein called Fli protein function as motor switch. The flagella motor rotates the filament as a turbine causing movement of the cell in the medium.The movement of flagella results from rotation of basal body which is similar to the movement of the shaft of an electric motor.A turning motion is generated between S-ring and M ring. S-ring acts as starter while M ring acts as roter.The basal body as a whole give a universal joint to the cell and allows complete rotation of hook and filament.Flagella moves the cell by rotating the flagella about the basal body. Rotation of flagella is either clockwise or anticlockwise.What is the structure of flagella?"
The Advantages of Digital Microscopes
The Advantages of Digital Microscopes
Digital microscopes are a marvel of modern science. A digital microscope consists of a regular microscope with a digital camera built into it. The images seen through a digital microscope can be projected to a computer monitor and saved on a computer file. A digital microscope is perfect for education because it lets many people view the specimen at once. The data saving capabilities of a digital microscope make it a great tool for research. A digital microscope is a microscope that contains a tiny digital camera and is connected to a computer. Most digital microscopes connect to computers via a USB port. Once the microscope is connected to the computer, the images seen through the microscope's eyepiece can be shown on the computer's monitor and saved on the hard drive for future use. Images can be printed if the computer is equipped with a digital printer. Digital microscopes are great for educational purposes. Many students can view the specimen at once when the camera is hooked up to a computer. This saves time and ensures that all of the students will get to see the same specimen. People can save images viewed through digital microscopes to computers, allowing them to access the image later. This is perfect for a school setting as it lets students recall the image if they need to later describe it or write about its details. Scientific researchers benefit greatly from digital microscopes. They are able to save and print images from the microscope, allowing for close examination. When the images seen through a digital microscope are viewed on a computer screen, it enables several researchers to examine the image at once. There are several different models of digital microscopes. Some have one eyepiece like most conventional microscopes. A handful of models are stereo microscopes , meaning that they have two eyepieces. All digital microscopes have numerous features that make them great tools for education and research.
Biomimetic Virus-based Colourimetric Sensors
Biomimetic Virus-based Colourimetric Sensors
Many materials in nature change colours in response to stimuli, making them attractive for use as sensor platform. However, both natural materials and their synthetic analogues lack selectivity towards specific chemicals, and introducing such selectivity remains a challenge. Here we report the self-assembly of genetically engineered viruses (M13 phage) into target-specific, colourimetric biosensors. The sensors are composed of phage-bundle nanostructures and exhibit viewing-angle independent colour, similar to collagen structures in turkey skin. On exposure to various volatile organic chemicals, the structures rapidly swell and undergo distinct colour changes. Furthermore, sensors composed of phage displaying trinitrotoluene (TNT)-binding peptide motifs identified from a phage display selectively distinguish TNT down to 300 p.p.b. over similarly structured chemicals. Our tunable, colourimetric sensors can be useful for the detection of a variety of harmful toxicants and pathogens to protect human health and national security.Our group identified a consensus TNT-binding peptide sequence (WHWQ) using phage display with a commercially available 12mer linear peptide library (Ph.D.-12). To incorporate the TNT-binding peptide, we genetically engineered the M13 phage's major coat proteins (pVIII). The desired peptide sequences were inserted between the first and the sixth amino acids of the amino terminus of wild-type pVIII, replacing residues 2–5 (Ala--Pro to Ala-()-Pro). To incorporate the most stable phage to carry the consensus TNT-binding peptide (WHWQ) identified by phage display, we designed a partial library with sequence of the form ADP using the primer: 5′-ATATATCTGCAGCCCGCAAAAGCG GCCTTTAACTCCC-3′ and the primer 5′-GCTGTCTTTCGCTGC AGAGGGTG-3′ to linearize the vector (=A/C/G/T and =G/T). To incorporate the gene sequences, PCR amplification was performed using Phusion DNA Polymerase, two primers (insertion and linearization) and an M13KE vector with an engineered I site as the template. The obtained product was purified on an agarose gel, eluted by spin column purification, digested with I enzyme and recircularized by an overnight ligation at 16 °C with T4 DNA ligase. The ligated DNA vector was transformed into XL1-Blue electroporation competent bacteria and the amplified plasmid sequence was verified at the University of California, Berkeley, DNA sequencing facility. The pVIII library was screened against TNT and the resulting sequences were tested for stability after large-scale amplification. The library member, ADDWHWQEGDP, was finally chosen to create our TNT–Phage litmus sensors. Alanine-substituted control phage (WAW, AHW and WHA) sequences were synthesized by site-directed mutagenesis of the WHW phage. Using similar genetic engineering approaches, we constructed 4E phage as a control. The constructed phages were amplified using bacterial cultures and purified through standard polyethylene glycol precipitation. The phage solution was further purified by filtration through 0.45 μm pore size membranes. To verify phage stability, DNA sequences were confirmed at each step of the amplification.We created the phage self-assembled colour band patterns using a simple pulling method. The colours of the assembled structures were varied by controlling the pulling speed between 20 and 80 μm min. We constructed a home-built phage deposition apparatus by modifying a syringe pump. We programmed software using C to control the motor speed (between 0.1 μm min and 30 mm min) through an RS232C cable. For preparing Phage litmus matrices, we used 6 mg ml 4E phage suspensions in Tris-buffered saline (12.5 mM Tris and 37.5 mM NaCl, pH 7.5) or 2.4 mg ml WHW-phage suspensions in DI water. A spectrum of coloured bands (each band was obtained at a different pulling speed) was clearly perceptible when the matrices were deposited on gold-coated Si wafers.Fresh turkey head samples were donated from a local turkey farm (Pitman Farms, Sanger, CA, USA). The heads were obtained through overnight delivery immediately after they were slaughtered. The fresh turkey skin samples were immediately taken and processed for optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. For histology, 0.5 × 1 cm turkey skin samples were soaked in 20% sucrose in PBS for 2 h, embedded in OCT Compound (Sakura, Torrance, CA, USA), cryosectioned at 5 μm thickness (Shandon Cryostat, Asheville, NC) and stained with Masson's trichrome. Images were collected using an IX71 Microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). Transmission electron microscopy samples were fixed with 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate (pH 7.2) for 1 h, post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate (pH 7.2) and rinsed three times with sodium cacodylate (pH 7.2). Dehydration was done using a graded ethanol series (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 100%) followed by step-wise infiltration with epon-araldite resin (two parts acetone/one part resin for 1 h, one part acetone/one part resin for 1 h, one part acetone/two parts resin for 1 h, 100% resin for 1 h, 100% resin overnight, 100% resin with benzyl dimethylamine (BDMA) for 1 h) and heat polymerized in a 60 °C oven. Sample blocks were sectioned at 90 nm using a Leica EM UC6 microtome (Leica Microsystems Inc., Buffalo Grove, IL 60089, USA). Grids were stained with 2% uranyl acetate and Reynolds' lead citrate. Imaging was done using a FEI Tecnai 12 transmission electron microscope (FEI, Hillsboro, OR 97124, USA).AFM images were collected using an MFP3D AFM (Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA) and analysed using Igor Pro 6.0 (WaveMetrics, Inc., Lake Oswego, OR) and Asylum software package (Asylum Research). All images were taken in tapping mode with a tip spring constant of 2 N m. The probe tips (Ted Pella, Inc., Redding, CA) were made of silicon with a 10-nm radius. The humidity experiments were carried out in a closed liquid cell. We injected a fixed quantity of DI water to control the humidity. FFT analysis of AFM cross-sectional height profiles was used to determine the periodicity of the self-assembled nanofilament structures within the Phage litmus matrices. Numerical computation of the Fourier transform was done with a 2D FFT algorithm in OriginPro 8 (Origin Lab Corp., Northampton, MA) and imageJ v1.44p (National Institutes of Health, USA). We calculated the Fourier power spectra expressed in spatial frequency (μm) from the AFM images.Phage litmus matrices were illuminated by a white light source of a Xenon lamp (X-Cite, Exfo, Mississauga, Canada) and the reflected spectra were obtained using a fibre optic spectrophotometer (USB4000, Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL) through a Y-shaped bifurcated optical fibre (). An optical fibre fixed on an –– stage was positioned normal to the Phage litmus surface and perpendicular to the scanning direction. Reflectance was measured using a gold-coated Si wafer as a reference. The humidity experiments were performed in a closed glove box (Plas Labs, Inc., Lansing, MI). The humidity was controlled by DI water and monitored using a hygrometer (VWR International Inc., West Chester, PA).To characterize the reflectance spectra of the Phage litmus under omnidirectional illumination, we lit a box coated with aluminium foil with a lamp (Incandescent Light, 150 W, DWC Sylvania, USA; ). We characterized the reflectance spectra while rotating the substrate between 10° and 90° from horizontal. A gold-coated Si wafer was used as a reference.To characterize the swelling behaviour of the Phage litmus, we performed GISAXS experiments before and during exposure to humidity (3 ml of DI water in a closed chamber). The GISAXS data were collected at the beamline 7.3.3 at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. X-rays with a wavelength of 1.23984 Å (10 keV) were used, and the scattering spectra were collected on an ADSC Quantum 4 μm CCD detector with an active area of 188 × 188 mm (2,304 × 2,304 pixels). The scattering profiles were obtained after a 60-s collection time by integrating the 2D scattering pattern. The sample to detector distance was 1.84791, m and the incidence angle was 0.14°. Line-averaged intensities were reported as versus , where =(4/) × sin(/2), was the wavelength of incident X-rays and was the scattering angle.A home-built sensing and analysis system was developed for real-time chemical sensing. The equipment setup consisted of a gas chamber with an optical opening where a digital microscope (Celestron LLC, Torrance, CA) was attached to monitor the colour of the Phage litmus. The chamber with the Phage litmus inside was positioned on top of a heat block to control the temperature of the chamber. A MATLAB programme (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA) was run on a PC to control the camera settings, to perform real-time readout and processing of the captured images and to display the real-time RGB data. First, the automatic gain of the digital microscope was turned to manual mode and a fixed gain was retained to prevent unwanted automatic compensation of brightness. The number of regions of interest, usually matching the number of different colour bands on the Phage litmus, was input by keyboard. Next, the specific regions to compare were selected from the first image (reference image) by mouse input. The subsequent images were taken and saved according to a pre-set frame rate (usually every 5 s). The change of the average RGB values with respect to the reference image for each region of interest was calculated and displayed on a graph in real time. We provide typical code from which we performed our experiments in . The vapour-phase experiments were performed by injection of a volume of solvent needed to achieve 300 p.p.m. concentration into a small container inside the chamber through an inlet tube. For explosive exposure experiments, we put excess amounts of each explosive crystal (200 mg) in a sealed chamber (20 ml) and controlled the vapour pressures by temperature. We obtained the concentration of all compounds based on the vapour pressure at each temperature with the assumption of vapour ideality. The vapour pressure of TNT, DNT and MNT was obtained from previously reported values. To collect the data at saturated conditions, we held the Phage litmus in the sealed chamber for 30 min and then obtained corresponding sensing results. To test the specificity of our TNT–Phage litmus sensor towards interfering molecules, experiments were performed in mixed vapours of MNT, DNT and TNT. First, we put the small sealed chambers (1 ml) containing excess amounts of each explosive crystal (200 mg) in a large chamber with the phage litmus. Next, we exposed the chambers to MNT, DNT and TNT vapours sequentially using needles to open each small chamber (). A similar setup was used to perform the same experiments in a background of ethanol vapour (). We performed the control experiments using a 4E–Phage litmus sensor ().Surface plasmon resonance analyses were performed using the Kretschmann optical configuration. A tungsten halogen lamp with a multiwavelength light source was used and a polarizer was positioned on the input path of the light for transverse magnetic fields. The prism coupler and the Phage litmus were mounted on an stage. We made an enclosed cell of 100 μl using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moulds. Flow of solution to the cell was implemented using 1 mm internal diameter tube. We injected 1 ml of solution into the cell at a flow rate of 50 μl min. The outflow from the cell was carried through to a reservoir. The reflected spectrum was measured by a fibre optic spectrometer (USB4000-ultraviolet visible, Ocean Optics) and data acquisition was performed using a homemade LabVIEW programme (LabVIEW 2009, National Instrument, Austin, TX). The surface plasmon resonance spectrum was calculated from linearly polarized light parallel/perpendicular to the incidence plane (TM/TE configuration).iColour analyser is an iOS 5 application software built using the Xcode programming language (Xcode 4.2, Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) and designed for the iPhone (Apple Inc, compatible with the iPod and iPad). This software has been built to analyse colourimetric changes of the RGB components from a Phage litmus in a systematic manner using a handheld device (). As demonstrated in this paper, the RGB colour components and their changes from the Phage litmus can be linked to specific responses from target molecules. The iColour analyser workflow is constituted of different parts (), as follows:: A channel type (picker) is displayed to choose an analysis mode: single or double channel. Single-channel mode samples from one to five colour matrices of a Phage litmus labelled as S1–S5. The results display one to five different colour matrix RGB components in a bar graph and their values on an 8-bit level. Double-channel mode allows for colour comparison analysis between a reference Phage litmus (before exposure to chemical) and the sample Phage litmus (after exposure to chemical) through comparison between one and five matrices. The RGB values displayed will be the difference between the RGB values of the sample and the reference.: Once the user clicks on the single button of this application, the iPhone takes a picture of the Phage litmus. One can resize and crop the picture of the Phage litmus sample to precisely obtain the target area to analyse.: Once the picture is taken, its central area is cropped and displayed. The picture is converted into a matrix containing the RGB and intensity values of each pixel. The vector data from the iPhone digital camera CCD (Omnivision OV5650, Santa Clara, CA) is processed to get the average of the RGB values from 2,592 × 1,944 pixels over the different areas selected by the user. An analysis table displays the RGB component intensity values and their s.d. An analysis graph will display the RGB values obtained from the sample. The 'average' picture displays a synthesized picture made from either the average RGB values in the case of the single analysis mode, or the difference between the average RGB values of the Phage litmus and its reference in the case of the double comparison mode. After displaying the analysis data and the date and time, a screenshot of the interface is saved in the picture browser of the iPhone and can be transferred easily to any computer through e-mail. In this work, for display purposes, the colour ranges of images are expanded from 5- to 8 bits per colour (RGB colour ranges of 0–31 expanded to 0–255).
The Benefits of Stereo Microscopes
The Benefits of Stereo Microscopes
Many people have trouble keeping one eye closed while peering through a microscope lens with the other eye. A stereo microscope eliminates the need to close one eye because it has two eyepieces. Stereo Microscopes have all of the features of conventional microscopes with some added advantages. First of all, stereo microscopes have two eyepieces. They allow for greater depth perception, allowing viewers to see objects in three dimensions. Many stereo microscopes have a zoom lens feature, and it is not uncommon to find a stereo microscope with two illuminators. A stereo microscope has two eyepieces. This is a major advantage over conventional microscopes. The two eyepieces allow viewers to keep both eyes open, making it easier to focus on the object they are looking at. Many stereo microscopes have comfortable rubber eye guards that make the microscopes even more user friendly. A major advantage of stereo microscopes is that they allow viewers to see objects in three dimensions. Most microscopes only show objects in two dimensions. People can look at insects, plants, coins, or anything else in all three dimensions, providing the most realistic viewing experience imaginable. Many stereo microscopes have a zoom lens feature. This provides nearly limitless options for resolution and gives users more control over focus. The zoom lens allows users to slowly enlarge the object they are viewing more easily than conventional microscopes , which have two knobs to adjust. Another feature found on many stereo microscopes is a dual illuminator system. A stereo microscope has the conventional illuminator below the stage as well as another one right above the objective lens. This provides more than enough light to view specimens in all of their three dimensional glory. Stereo microscopes are versatile and easy to use. They are perfect for students or anyone else who wants to explore the miniature world around them.
Introduction to Microscope Slide
Introduction to Microscope Slide
1. Bibliography of microscope slideRichard Cote, Saul Suster, Lawrence Weiss, Noel Weidner (Editor). Modern Surgical Pathology (2 Volume Set). London: W B Saunders. ISBN0-7216-7253-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link).mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit------2. Function of microscope slideBefore HM Government wind-up led by minister James Brokenshire, the FSS was the market leader in the supply of forensic science services to police forces in England and Wales, as well as being a source of training, consultancy and scientific support. The FSS originally set up and maintained the UK National DNA Database, but it is now run by the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA).The FSS suffered damage to its reputation following the failure to recover blood stains from a shoe in the murder of Damilola Taylor. Further damage occurred when the FSS failed to use the most up-to-date techniques for extracting DNA samples in cases between 2000 and 2005. This led the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) to advise all police forces in England and Wales to review cases where samples had failed to give a DNA profile.TechnologiesThe FSS's innovative and highly sensitive DNA profiling technique called LCN (low copy number) was used in convicting Antoni Imiela (the M25 rapist) and Ronald Castree (for the murder of Lesley Molseed in 1975), but was questioned during the 2007 trial of a suspect in the Omagh bombing. However, a review by the CPS found that "the CPS has not seen anything to suggest that any current problems exist with LCN. Accordingly we conclude that LCN DNA analysis provided by the FSS should remain available as potentially admissible evidence". In addition, other Police Forces around the world are reviewing cases where LCN DNA profiling resulted in the successful prosecution of suspects. Included in this are several high-profile international cases including the murder of Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh by Mijailo Mijailovic and in Australia, the murder of a backpacker Peter Falconio by Bradley John Murdoch and trial of Bradley Robert Edwards for the Claremont serial killings.In later years the FSS drew on internal expertise and key international experts to become a pioneer in forensic software and technology, notably DNA interpretation, databasing, and electronic forensics.------3. Background of microscope slide24 March commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch astounded the scientific community by announcing to a small group of scientists at the University of Berlin's Institute of Hygiene that he had discovered the cause of tuberculosis, the TB bacillus. According to Koch's colleague, Paul Ehrlich, "At this memorable session, Koch appeared before the public with an announcement which marked a turning-point in the story of a virulent human infectious disease. In clear, simple words Koch explained the aetiology of tuberculosis with convincing force, presenting many of his microscope slides and other pieces of evidence." At the time of Koch's announcement in Berlin, TB was raging through Europe and the Americas, causing the death of one out of every seven people. Koch's discovery opened the way toward diagnosing and curing tuberculosis------4. Botanical illustrator of microscope slideA botanical illustrator is a person who paints, sketches or otherwise illustrates botanical subjects. Typical illustrations are in watercolour, but may also be in oils, ink or pencil, or a combination of these. The image may be life size or not, the scale is often shown, and may show the habit and habitat of the plant, the upper and reverse sides of leaves, and details of flowers, bud, seed and root system.Botanical illustration is sometimes used as a type for attribution of a botanical name to a taxon. The inability of botanists to conserve certain dried specimens, or restrictions on safe transport, have meant illustrations have been nominated as the type for some names. Many minute plants, which may only be viewed under a microscope, are often identified by an illustration to overcome the difficulties in using slide mounted specimens. The standards for this are by international agreement (Art 37.5 of the Vienna Code, 2006)...------5. Specimens of microscope slideThere are two major types of specimens submitted for surgical pathology analysis: biopsies and surgical resections.A biopsy is a small piece of tissue removed primarily for the purposes of surgical pathology analysis, most often in order to render a definitive diagnosis. Types of biopsies include core biopsies, which are obtained through the use of large-bore needles, sometimes under the guidance of radiological techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. Core biopsies, which preserve tissue architecture, should not be confused with fine-needle aspiration specimens, which are analyzed using cytopathology techniques. Incisional biopsies are obtained through diagnostic surgical procedures that remove part of a suspicious lesion, whereas excisional biopsies remove the entire lesion and are similar to therapeutic surgical resections. Excisional biopsies of skin lesions and gastrointestinal polyps are very common. The pathologist's interpretation of a biopsy is critical to establishing the diagnosis of a benign or malignant tumor, and can differentiate between different types and grades of cancer, as well as determining the activity of specific molecular pathways in the tumor. This information is important for estimating the patient's prognosis and for choosing the best treatment to administer. Biopsies are also used to diagnose diseases other than cancer, including inflammatory, infectious, or idiopathic diseases of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, to name only a few.Surgical resection specimens are obtained by the therapeutic surgical removal of an entire diseased area or organ (and occasionally multiple organs). These procedures are often intended as definitive surgical treatment of a disease in which the diagnosis is already known or strongly suspected. However, pathological analysis of these specimens is critically important in confirming the previous diagnosis, staging the extent of malignant disease, establishing whether or not the entire diseased area was removed (a process called "determination of the surgical margin", often using frozen section), identifying the presence of unsuspected concurrent diseases, and providing information for postoperative treatment, such as adjuvant chemotherapy in the case of cancer.In the determination of surgical margin of a surgical resection, one can use the bread loafing technique, or CCPDMA. A special type of CCPDMA is named after a general surgeon, or the Mohs surgery method.------6. Structure of microscope slideThe FSS had several facilities throughout the country, and provided scene-of-crime and forensic investigation services to police forces in England and Wales, as well as to the Crown Prosecution Service, HM Revenue and Customs, HM Coroners' Service, Ministry of Defence Police, British Transport Police and worldwide forensic services.When an executive agency, its two main headquarters were at 109 Lambeth Road (A3202), London and at Priory House on Gooch Street North in Birmingham.Its headquarters were close to the A452, near to where it crosses the M42. The Police in England and Wales spend 170million on forensic science.LaboratoriesIt had seven main laboratories across England and Wales:Trident Court, nr Solihull / BirminghamPriory House BirminghamHinchingbrooke Park, HuntingdonLondon (Lambeth) after becoming an executive agency as until then it had been the Met Lab.Audby Lane, Wetherby, LeedsUsk Road, ChepstowWashington Hall, ChorleyAldermaston Laboratory, Aldermaston------7. Subspecialties of microscope slideMany pathologists seek fellowship-level training, or otherwise pursue expertise in a focused area of surgical pathology. Subspecialization is particularly prevalent in the academic setting, where pathologists may specialise in an area of diagnostic surgical pathology that is relevant to their research, but is becoming increasingly prevalent in private practice as well. Subspecialization has a number of benefits, such as allowing for increased experience and skill at interpreting challenging cases, as well as development of a closer working relationship between the pathologist and clinicians within a subspecialty area. Commonly recognized subspecialties of surgical pathology include the following:Bone pathologyCardiac pathologyCytopathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S.)Dermatopathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S.)Endocrine pathologyGastrointestinal pathologyGenitourinary pathologyGynecologic pathologyHematopathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S.)Neuropathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S. and a recognised specialty in the U.K.)Ophthalmic pathologyPediatric pathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S. and a recognised specialty in the U.K.)Pulmonary pathologyRenal pathologySoft tissue pathologyBreast pathology
Best Camera for Backpacking: Three Top Choices for Compact Digital Cameras
Best Camera for Backpacking: Three Top Choices for Compact Digital Cameras
Pentax Optio W90 Digital Camera (5 out of 5)The absolute best camera for backpacking might just be a breakthrough offering from Pentax. For the price ($200 on Amazon.com), the dynamic, waterproof, and extremely durable Pentax Optio W90 is jam packed with features well suited for the backpacker. Beginning with its light weight (5.8 ounces) and compact dimensions (4.2 x 2.3 x 1 inches), this sleek device is small enough to have at the ready in a pocket the whole time you're hiking. Since it powers up in 1.3 seconds and there's only a .3 second shutter lag, you can snap any interesting woodland creature that wanders into focus too. With a 5x digital zoom and 12.1 megapixel capacity, you can convince your friends that the stunningly clear 300 pound grizzly bear was a lot closer than it actually was. What's more, you don't have to worry about rain, sleet, or snow because this camera is waterproof (usually when "W" is in a model name, that's what it means) up to 20 feet. So that means you can take plenty of great underwater shots with it too.It's shockproof so long as it's no longer than four feet and don't worry about the dust, desert scramblers. It's really easy to use if you're new to the digital photography world, taking great pictures no matter what skill level you're at along with high quality HD to boot (complete with an editing feature built into the camera). Incidentally, if you're in the market for one, check out The Backpacker's Top Ratings for Handheld GPS. Back to the Pentax W90; for close ups, it has a digital microscope mode to capture a subject that is only a mere centimeter away from the lens. What they deem an Advanced Pixel Track Shake Reduction translates to the user taking clear and crisp pictures while shivering, shaking, or even on a moving surface (or hanging from a rope, climbers). It will operate at 14 and 104 degrees Fahrenheit and everything in between. Finally, you can get it in yellow so that after you're ready to hit the trail again after a break, it sticks out like a sore thumb during your gear check.Olympus Stylus Tough-8010 (5 out of 5)Designed with adventurous souls in mind, the Stylus Tough-8010 out does the other offerings on the list in terms of its rugged frame that can take a 6.6 ft drop and withstand a 220 lb. crushing blow; so it's the optimum choice for the clumsy and those really hard on gear. You can confidently take pictures at deeper depths (33 feet) also. But the rugged design doesn't diminish the ability of this high resolution 14 megapixel to create stunning and vividly detailed photos. The anti-glare 2.7" LCD gives you a nice and wide viewing angle and the 5x optical zoom (that doesn't protrude) can get you really close to wildlife and you can also shoot HD video with ease. This model retails for around $250 on Amazon.com. It has 29 different shooting modes but the Auto option will identify your target and make all the adjustments for you. Dual Image Stabilization combined with ISO sensitivity and a super-quick shutter speed captures those moving objects. The Li-ion rechargeable battery has a decent life at about 200 pictures. This model's one big drawback is that it's slow starting up, and slower between pictures. But if it's landscapes it's great for the money. The Canon PowerShot D10reviewed in the second article in this series is quicker and the image quality is a little better too.But it's also worthy of noting that although the Stylus 1030SW has been discontinued (or what they annoyingly deem as "archived" on the company website) you can still find this outstanding, smash-proof offering on the Web (Amazon has it listed for $420). This Stylus model topped Backpacker Magazine's best gear list in 2009. If they said it's the best camera for backpacking, then it certainly is a well-regarded item to put on your gear list.Nikon Coolpix P6000 Camera – Great Photos and Geotagging TooContinuing on with our choices for the best camera to take backpacking, we move on to Nikon now. The hardy, feature-laden Coolpix P6000 was designed with the rugged backpacker in mind because first of all, it's designed to withstand a pounding either rattling around in the pack or even dropping it (although they do give a four foot maximum). The internal GPS geotags every picture you take with a digital stamp so you know exactly where it was taken. Then, when you return from a trip, it's a breeze to download all your pictures to Google Earth, the post-a-trip feature on Backpacker.com, or Nikon Picturetown. It's a fantastic way to photo journal every trip you take by integrating the pics with maps. Even when the camera is off, it's little electronic brain updates and locks your GPS position. You might want to take a look at this great review of the Coolpix 7000 too, for comparative purposes.This compact and lightweight (8.5 ounces) digital dynamo has a 13.5 megapixel capacity with a 2.7-inch LCD screen that takes stunning pictures that capture the subtleties and shadowy features of the natural world better than most point and shoot offerings. To zero in on distant wildlife, it has a 4x zoom optical lens that never protrudes from the camera because it's internally stacked. When the sun is too bright, you have the option of using the additional viewfinder to frame your images. From those mountain peaks, treasured by many backpackers, this camera has a mode for panorama stitching mode to recreate that breathtaking view. The only downside is the 11 hour battery life you get with the rechargeable cell battery. The experts at Backpacker Magazine gave this the Editor's Choice Award for 2009 which speaks volumes about its prowess in the field. At the time of this writing, it's on sale for $650 on Amazon.com. But you can find it for a lot cheaper than that with a little searching of your own.So there you have it, three models you can't go wrong with that will all withstand any conditions you might encounter, but they also offer some different features that might appeal to you. So get out there and enjoy the wild reaches of this world to get in tune with your true self. And take lots of pictures to remind yourself of that feeling back in this silly world where having to go to jobs is the best we could come up with in 4000 years.This post is part of the series: Best Compact Digital Point-and-Shoots for Outdoor Enthusiasts
An Elasto-mechanical Unfeelability Cloak Made of Pentamode Metamaterials
An Elasto-mechanical Unfeelability Cloak Made of Pentamode Metamaterials
Metamaterial-based cloaks make objects different from their surrounding appear just like their surrounding. To date, cloaking has been demonstrated experimentally in many fields of research, including electrodynamics at microwave frequencies, optics, static electric conduction, acoustics, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and quasi two-dimensional solid mechanics. However, cloaking in the seemingly simple case of three-dimensional solid mechanics is more demanding. Here, inspired by invisible core-shell nanoparticles in optics, we design an approximate elasto-mechanical core-shell 'unfeelability' cloak based on pentamode metamaterials. The resulting three-dimensional polymer microstructures with macroscopic overall volume are fabricated by rapid dip-in direct laser writing optical lithography. We quasi-statically deform cloak and control samples in the linear regime and map the displacement fields by autocorrelation-based analysis of recorded movies. The measured and the calculated displacement fields show very good cloaking performance. This means that one can elastically hide objects along these lines.For the fabrication of the mechanical cloak as well as the reference structures, we used the commercially available DLW system Photonic Professional GT (Nanoscribe GmbH, Germany). In this setup, a liquid photoresist (IP-S resist, Nanoscribe GmbH) was polymerized via multi-photon absorption using a frequency-doubled Erbium fibre laser with a center wavelength of 780 nm and with a pulse duration of about 90 fs. The 3D exposure pattern was addressed by laser scanning using a set of galvo-mirrors and mechanical stages. The samples were prepared by drop-casting the negative-tone photoresist on a glass cover slip (22 × 22 × 0.17 mm). To avoid depth-dependent aberrations, the objective lens ( × 25, numerical aperture=0.8, Carl Zeiss) was directly dipped into the resist. Structural data were created in STL file format using the open-source software Blender and COMSOL Multiphysics. The software package Describe (Nanoscribe GmbH) was used to compile the CAD data into machine code. The scan raster was set to 0.5 μm laterally and 1 μm axially. The structure was laterally split into 8 scan fields of about 500 × 500 μm footprint each that were stitched together. The writing speed was set to 5 cm s. After the DLW of the preprogrammed pattern, the exposed sample was developed for 20 min in mr-Dev 600 and acetone. The process was finished in a supercritical point dryer to avoid capillary forces during drying.The images used for the extraction of the strain field were recorded with a camera (Sony GigE Vision XCG-5005CR) attached to a stereo microscope (Leica Mz 125 and a 0.5 × adapter from Leica mount to C-Mount). To reduce data, the images were then cropped to show only the structure and its close vicinity. For each picture taken, a linear stage induced a different predefined strain into the sample. The strain was successively increased in 50 steps towards the maximum value and afterwards decreased in 50 steps back to the initial value with a strain rate of 2% per minute. The glass substrate with the sample was attached to a goniometer and a micrometre stage to allow for positioning and aligning the sample with respect to the rest of the setup. The stamp was moved with a linear stage to which part of a silicon wafer with well-defined surface was attached.The software used to extract the strain field was based on a freely available package. Here, selected markers with a set size of 15 × 15 image pixels were cross-correlated with the images from the measurement. The initial marker positions were fixed in a square grid with a spacing of 15 pixels in both dimensions spanning the entire size of the sample. This resulted in 67 markers along the horizontal direction and about 35 in the vertical. The tracking algorithm was set to a precision of 1/1,000 pixel. After cross-correlation, the position of each marker was known for each image. By subtracting the current marker positions from those of the reference frame, the displacement vector field was calculated for each image. Small movements of the glass substrate were corrected for. Movies of the reference, the obstacle and the cloak sample are given as . There, the full displacement vectors, multiplied by a factor of 4, are depicted. Additional colour coding of the modulus of the displacement vector helps to identify gradients. Colour coding and scales are identical for the three movies.We used the commercial software package COMSOL Multiphysics to numerically solve the static equations for linear elasticity. This means that neither a nonlinearity of the constituent material nor of the structure was accounted for. The geometry with the design parameters described in the main text was built using the internal kernel of COMSOL Multiphysics. The mesh consisted of about 640,000 tetrahedral elements (in COMSOL nomenclature: maximum element size=0.2 × , minimum element size=0.05 × , maximum element growth rate=16, resolution of curvature=0.7 and resolution of narrow regions=0.4) corresponding to 3–4 × 10 degrees of freedom. We used the direct solver MUMPS with a convergence tolerance of 10. As constituent material, we set an isotropic polymer with Young's modulus=1 GPa , Poisson's ratio =0.4 and mass density =1,200 kg m. Owing to the scalability of the underlying equations, Young's modulus and mass density did not even enter into the final results. The Poisson's ratio was not actually important. To deduce the displacements depicted in , we have tracked the connections with diameter in the middle of the extended fcc unit cell with respect to the direction. Further data processing was done like in the experiment.
Formation of Printable Granular and Colloidal Chains Through Capillary Effects and Dielectrophoresis
Formation of Printable Granular and Colloidal Chains Through Capillary Effects and Dielectrophoresis
One-dimensional conductive particle assembly holds promise for a variety of practical applications, in particular for a new generation of electronic devices. However, synthesis of such chains with programmable shapes outside a liquid environment has proven difficult. Here we report a route to simply 'pull' flexible granular and colloidal chains out of a dispersion by combining field-directed assembly and capillary effects. These chains are automatically stabilized by liquid bridges formed between adjacent particles, without the need for continuous energy input or special particle functionalization. They can further be deposited onto any surface and form desired conductive patterns, potentially applicable to the manufacturing of simple electronic circuits. Various aspects of our route, including the role of particle size and the voltages needed, are studied in detail. Looking towards practical applications, we also present the possibility of two-dimensional writing, rapid solidification of chains and methods to scale up chain production.The experimental set-up consisted of a signal generator (SDG1025 Siglent), a high-voltage bipolar amplifier (10HVA24-BP1 HVP), –– motorized translation stage (MTS25-Z8 Thorlabs), a digital microscope (AM7115 Dino-Lite) and a PC for collecting images. The signal electrode for pulling out the particles from a dispersion was made of a thin aluminium wire attached to another motorized translation stage for controlling the pulling rate.Silicone oils (Dow Corning 200 with kinematic viscosity 100 cSt; electric conductivity
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Inverted Microscope
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Inverted Microscope
1. How could I fully know about Cell therapy from The Point of Standardization, Scale, and Industrialization?What is cell therapy?Cell therapy refers to the transplantation or input of normal or bioengineered human cells into a patient's body and newly-imported cells can replace damaged cells or involve a stronger immune killing function, so as to achieve the purpose of treating diseases. Cell therapy has shown higher application value in the treatment of cancer, hematological diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease etc. In general, cell therapy includes tumor cell immunotherapy and stem cell therapy. There are two cell sources for cell therapy, one from the patient itself and the other from the allogeneic tissue.The Defects of Cell TherapyThe cell is the most basic unit that contributes to a living organism, however, it does not mean that everyone shares the same cells. On the contrary, there is a huge difference in each individual which can be compared to human-to-human differences, that is, two identical people never exist. The huge difference between cells and cell preparations is the biggest drawback of cell therapy. In this post, we will discuss several issues that need attention in the current stage of cell therapy.Difficulties in the Standardization of Cell TherapyCancer cell immunotherapy cannot be standardized from the stage of raw material acquisition. The cell treatment materiasl for each paitient are their own blood leukocytes. The condition and physical condition of each patient are different, and the collected white blood cell growth quantity and kill activity are not uniform and cannot be standardized. As it is impossible to standardize raw materials, preparation processes, and product specifications, it cannot be standardized, industrialized, and scaled up. Each tumor cell immunotherapy laboratory meets the GMP level with the hardware environment, and it can be more like a cell preparation workshop. Researchers ranged in number from a few to a dozen and could not really meet the standards of division of labor of industrialized pharmaceutical companies. Taking stem cell therapy that using umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as an example, which raw material is an umbilical cord, and one umbilical cord-produced cell can be utilized by many paitients. The standardization path is more advanced than the immunotherapy of tumor cells, and the raw materials can be standardized to some extent.Difficulties in The Scale of Cell Therapy IndustryAt present, the production mode of the cell therapy industry mainly depends on technicians. In the 10,000-grade clean laboratory, the cells are operated in a class 100 clean bench, cultured in a carbon dioxide incubator, centrifuged in a centrifuge, observed through an inverted microscope, and the drug reagents are stored in a medicine refrigerator. All of these devices are operated by independent biological laboratories of the individual and being linked together through the operations of scientists. This type of production model is small in scale and similar to workshop-type production. Although there are some large scales, the essence is a collection of many small workshops. Due to the small scale, the instruments used are laboratory instruments and many of the reagents used are scientific reagents, which will lead to the issue of low efficiency but high cost.Autologous or Allogeneic cellsThere are two kinds of cell sources for cell therapy, one from the patients and the other from the allogeneic tissue. Autologous cell therapy can not be standardized from the raw material acquisition stage, and its cells are only applied to the patient itself, the essence is essentially medical technology. The prevalence of autologous cell therapy as a medical technology is mainly due to the scale of the predicament. Allogeneic cell therapy, the cells derived from allogeneic. Taking tumor cell immunotherapy as an example, the cell source may be from cord blood, and the larger-scale cell source may be a filter plate for leukocyte filtration at the blood bank. Taking umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as an example, the cell source is the umbilical cord, and one umbilical cord-producing cell can be used by more than one person. If scale can be cultivated, although the quality standards cannot be quantified well, the scaled products themselves have a certain degree of standardized properties.The cell industry, as an industry, is not the path to the advancement of cell-based therapeutics. If the advanced technology cannot be mass-produced on a large scale, it can only stay in the laboratory and become the object of research for scientists, never have a chance to become a drug into the majority of patients. For allogeneic cell therapy that using allogeneic cells as raw materials, the standardized properties of the scaled products can be realized if large-scale cultures are prepared, then scale and standardization can promote each other. The current progress in standardization of cells is not easy, but the progress in scale should be relatively easy to achieve. Natural cytokine supernatants with more standardized and standardized propertiesCytokines are a class of small molecule proteins with broad biological activity synthesized and secreted by immune cells (such as monocytes, macrophages, T cells, B cells, NK cells, etc.) and certain non-immune cells (endothelial cells, epidermal cells, fibroblasts, etc.) Immune responses are regulated by binding to the respective receptors to regulate cell growth, differentiation and effects. Cytokines (CK) are low-molecular-weight soluble proteins that are produced by various types of cells induced by immunogens, mitogens, or other stimulants. They have the ability to regulate innate immunity and adaptive immunity , hematopoiesis, cell growth, and damage tissue repair and other functions.Cytokines can be divided into interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factor superfamily, colony stimulating factors, chemokines, growth factors etc. Cytokines form a very complex cytokine regulatory network in the body and participate in many important physiological functions of the human body. Where stem cells and immune cells cannot reach the body, cytokines can easily reach target tissue sites because of their small size.In recent years, recombinant gene cytokines have made remarkable achievements in clinical applications as a novel biological response modifier. A large part of the effects of stem cell therapy and immune cell therapy arises from the action of cytokines secreted in the body. The stem cells and immune cells in the body are introduced back into the body to secrete a variety of natural structural cytokines. Although the amount of these cytokines is relatively small, they are synergistic and act directly on the cytokine network in the body because of their high natural structure activity, lack of antigenicity but diversity. Because of the standardization, standardization, industrialization, and scale of natural compound cytokines, it is more cost-effective than cell therapy, allowing more patients in need to enjoy cell-like therapeutic effects.Although natural complex cytokines can largely replace cell therapy, but there are still conditions that require the presence of cells to exert a therapeutic effect. We hope that cell therapy can break the current situation, become high efficiency and low cost with large scale, more standardization, and then be applied to more disease treatments. How could I fully know about Cell therapy from The Point of Standardization, Scale, and Industrialization?------2. What are some easy ways to store freshwater samples from ponds, preserving the life forms (microorganisms like plankton, algae)? Would freezing work?It depends on what you want to do with the samples, but freezing tends to cause ice crystals form in the tissues, rupturing the cells. I donu2019t know if there is an easy way.If you want to preserve the organisms for DNA analysis ethanol is the standard. Formalin-based and other preservatives. If you canu2019t get reagent grade ethanol, grain alcohol or even vodka can work. This would also work if you are interested in examining the frustules of diatoms, although the diatoms are often cleaned further with sulfuric acid if this is the final goal.For zooplankton with hard shell such as copepods, cladocera and fish larvae, formalin is the standard solution. Formalin is hazardous so samples are often transferred to ethanol before examination. Even when examining ethanol preserved samples, a vent hose is typically located next to the microscope to draw off the alcohol fumes. Zooplankton is typically examined in an open petri dish under a dissecting microscope. For protozoa and dinoflagellates, I used Lugolu2019s Iodine Solution. This tends not to rupture fragile cells. These organisms are typically examined in a Sedgewick-Rafter cell under a compound microscope or maybe with an inverted microscope. Since the sample is covered, there is usually not a need for extra ventilation. The safest way to preserve general plankton samples is probably with ethanol. More fragile cells will lyse and the phytoplankton will lose most of its chlorophyll, but it is the least toxic preservative available. You can filter it onto a fins mesh and rinse it with water before examining it if it is for a school project. If you only need to preserve the sample for a short period of time you can store it in an opaque jar in the refrigerator. Cold-water organisms may be able to survive for a while under these conditions, and whatever dies will decay more slowly than at room temperature. If you chose this method, only fill the sample container 1/3 of the way with water. If you fill it up all the way, the only oxygen available is what is in the water at the time. By leaving a lot of air, oxygen exchange can occur. The same goes when bagging aquarium fish. no more than 1/3 of the bag should be filled with water, the rest should be air.If you want to look up specific methods I suggest looking up the following journals online: Limnology & Oceanography, Marine Ecology Progress Series and the Journal of Plankton Research. They have made many of the older papers free for anyone to view, so if you look up plankton studies you can find out which methods people have used. The plankton are so diverse that no single method preserves everything equally well.What are some easy ways to store freshwater samples from ponds, preserving the life forms (microorganisms like plankton, algae)? Would freezing work?------3. How do we know the full 3-dimensional shape of a cell or any extremely diminute things?Cells are actually quite large when you consider that with electron microscopy, scientists can resolve structures that are less than a nanometer in one dimension. Much of what we know about intracellular structures came from early transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of extremely thin slices of tissues. Using plastics, we can immobilize cells in a solid block and cut them into tiny slices (10s of nm thick) using extremely sharp and precise blades. We can image these thin sections of cells using heavy metals as contrasting agents. Thicker tissue sections (5-10 um) can be used in combination with non-specific tissue and nuclear stains (such as hematoxylin) and light microscopy to visualize cell shape, size, and position in a tissue. Much of what we know about the structure and shape of cells is through histological sections of tissues. Figure 1: Representative TEM image of a plant cell.Figure 2: Representative H&E stain of intestinal tissue.Phase contrast and brightfield imaging (using conventional upright or inverted microscopes equipped with medium-power objectives) enable scientists to visualize the outline and the nucleus of cells, so these techniques have long been used to look at the shape of cells in a two-dimensional context (on a tissue culture plate, for example). Microscopes with fluorescent light sources and sensitive CCD cameras enable scientists to visualize inside and outside of cells using fluorescent probes (that can bind to particular components of the cell, either on the inside of the cell or outside). Confocal laser-scanning microscopy is a very similar technique to fluorescence microscopy, but the technique uses very high power lasers to excite particular fluorophores in your cell samples through an extremely small aperture (that eliminates much of the background light characteristic of traditional fluorescence microscopy). Confocal microscopy can be used to take fluorescent 2D images of the entire thickness of a cell and reconstruct these 2D images into a 3D rendering of the cell. This technique has proved indispensible in my research!Figure 3: Representative confocal reconstruction of retina, showing retinal gangliaI hope this answers your question!References: Electron microscopy (EM) Cancer: An Introduction | We All Have Unique Brains Zeiss LSM 510 Meta Confocal Microscope How do we know the full 3-dimensional shape of a cell or any extremely diminute things?
Radial Arrangement of Janus-like Setae Permits Friction Control in Spiders
Radial Arrangement of Janus-like Setae Permits Friction Control in Spiders
Dynamic attachment is the key to move on steep surfaces, with mechanisms being still not well understood. The hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Arachnida, Ctenidae) possesses hairy attachment pads (claw tufts) at its distal legs, consisting of directional branched setae. The morphological investigation revealed that adhesive setae are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus. Friction of claw tufts on smooth glass was measured to reveal the functional effect of seta arrangement within the pad. Measurements revealed frictional anisotropy in both longitudinal and transversal directions. Contact behaviour of adhesive setae was investigated in a reflection interference contrast microscope (RICM). Observations on living spiders showed, that only a small part of the hairy pads is in contact at the same time. Thus the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. This may aid controlling the attachment to the substrate.Three living individuals of the hunting spider K 1877 (Ctenidae) were obtained from a laboratory stock of the Department of Neurobiology, University of Vienna, Austria. Spiders were kept in cylindrical glasses at the room temperature and 95% relative humidity and fed with house crickets () obtained from the local pet shop.The claw tufts were observed with aid of a stereo microscope (M205 A, Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) under lateral and coaxial illumination in spiders resting upside-down on the smooth transparent surface of Plexiglas Petri dishes.Tarsi of the four pairs of walking legs of one body side were ablated with a scalpel in spiders anaesthetized with carbon dioxide. The samples were air dried, mounted on metal stubs and sputter coated with a 15 nm layer of gold-palladium. Samples were viewed in the SEM TM-3000 (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at 15.0 kV using back-scattered electron (BSE) detector.The setup for force measurements was as previously described by Niederegger and Gorb and is displayed in . Freshly ablated tarsi of different walking legs from spiders anaesthetized with carbon dioxide were shaved at their dorsal side and mounted on a Plexiglas slide with bees wax. Tarsi were positioned in the wax so that the median surface of the setal array of the claw tuft was parallel to the Plexiglas slide. Those samples were attached with double sided adhesive tape to the distal cantilever of a load cell force transducer with 10 g force range (World Precision Instruments Inc., Sarasota, FL, USA). A second force transducer of the same type was attached to a micromanipulator (DC3001R with controller MS314, World Precision Instruments Inc., Sarasota, FL, USA) and placed perpendicularly to the first one. A clean glass cover slip was mounted on the lateral edge of the cantilever. Thus, normal force and friction force could be recorded simultaneously. Force curves were recorded with AcqKnowledge 3.7.0 software (Biopac Systems Ltd, Goleta, CA, USA). A laterally installed stereo microscope was used to monitor the sample movements and the proper contact formation between the claw tuft and smooth substrate.Experiments were performed at an environmental temperature of 20–23°C and a relative humidity of 20–25%. The cover slip was brought into contact with the claw tuft and loaded until normal force reached about 7 mN. Then it was horizontally moved for 3 s with the constant velocity of 200 μm·s in the proximal (simulating leg pushing) and distal (simulating leg pulling) direction, and the friction forces, resisting these movements, was recorded. Proximal and distal sliding experiments were done in a randomized order.Similar force measurements were repeated with the same but air dried samples after two days. Additionally, pro- and retrolateral shearing experiments were performed in the pro- and retrolateral lobes of the claw tuft on an air dried anterior leg tarsus. For this purpose, the leg sample was positioned in the way that the surface of respective lobe was oriented parallelly to the surface of the glass cover slip.Force data were obtained by respective processing of the recorded time-force curves. We have taken into account values recorded after two seconds after shear movement was started, to ensure that the contact between the pad and substrate was formed and friction forces have reached plateau. Friction coefficient μ was calculated as the quotient between friction and normal force. Data were statistically compared with R software package (version 2.13.2, ).Contact behaviour between tuft pad and glass substrate was visualized with an inverted light microscope (Axio Observer.A1, Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Göttingen, Germany). In the RICM mode, the light source is positioned in a way that light is reflected at the interface of direct (real) contact between the glass slide and the object. Zones of direct contact appear as dark spots on the bright background. Similar visualisation techniques were previously used in studies of attachment of cells and frogs.A cleaned glass cover slip was mounted on the stage and viewed at ×200–630 (oil immersion) magnification. The air dried claw tuft was glued onto a sample holder and positioned with the ventral side onto the cover slip. The stage was then manually moved vertically and laterally and the behaviour of spatulae in contact with glass was recorded with a high speed video camera (Photron Fastcam SA1.1, VKT Video Kommunikation GmbH, Pfullingen, Germany) at 500–1000 frames per second.
Contact us
Leave a message
we welcome custom designs and ideas and is able to cater to the specific requirements. for more information, please visit the website or contact us directly with questions or inquiries.
One-stop medical & laboratory equipment supplier,focus on medical equipments over 10 years
Contact us

If you have a question, please contact at contact info@mecanmedical.com

+86 020 8483 5259
Copyright © 2021 Guangzhou MeCan Medical Limited  | Sitemap